Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi,Â Published in the Harijan
Several letters have been received by me, asking me to declare my viewsÂ about the Arab-Jew question in Palestine and the persecution of the Jews inÂ Germany. It is not without hesitation that I venture to offer my views onÂ this very difficult question.
My sympathies are all with the Jews. I have known them intimately in SouthÂ Africa. Some of them became lifelong companions. Through these friends IÂ came to learn much of their age long persecution. They have been theÂ untouchables of Christianity. The parallel between their treatment byÂ Christians and the treatment of untouchables by Hindus is very close.
Religious sanction has been invoked in both cases for the justification ofÂ the inhuman treatment meted out to them. Apart from the friendships,Â therefore, there is the more common universal reason for my sympathy forÂ the Jews. But my sympathy does not blind me to the requirements of justice.
The cry for the national home for the Jews does not make much appeal to me.Â The sanction for it is sought in the Bible and the tenacity with which the JewsÂ have hankered after return to Palestine.
Why should they not, like other peoples of the earth, make that country
their home where they are born and where they earn their livelihood?
Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English or France to the French. It is wrong and inhuman to impose the Jews on the Arabs. What is going on in Palestine today cannot be justified by any moral code of conduct. The mandates have no sanction but that of the last war. Surely it would be a crime against humanity to reduce the proud Arabs so that Palestine can be restored to the Jews partly or wholly as theirÂ national home. The nobler course would be to insist on a just treatment ofÂ the Jews wherever they are born and bred. The Jews born in France are French in precisely the same sense that Christians born in France are French.
If the Jews have no home but Palestine, will they relish the idea of beingÂ forced to leave the other parts of the world in which they are settled?Â Or do they want a double home where they can remain at will?
This cry for the national home affords a colorable justification for the German expulsion ofÂ the Jews. But the German persecution of the Jews seems to have no parallelÂ in history. The tyrants of old never went so mad as Hitler seems to haveÂ gone. And he is doing it with religious zeal. For, he is propounding a newÂ religion of exclusive and militant nationalism in the name of which anyÂ inhumanity becomes an act of humanity to be rewarded here and hereafter.
The crime of an obviously mad but intrepid youth is being visited upon hisÂ wholerace with unbelievable ferocity. If there ever could be a justifiableÂ war in the name of and for humanity, a war against Germany to prevent theÂ wanton persecution of a whole race, would be completely justified. But I doÂ not believe in any war. A discussion of the pros and cons of such a war is,Â therefore, outside my horizon or province.
But if there can be no war against Germany, even for such a crime as is
being committed against the Jews, surely there can be no alliance with
Germany. How can there be alliance between a nation, which claims to standÂ for justice and democracy and one, which is the declared enemy of both? OrÂ is England drifting towards armed dictatorship and all it means?
Germany is showing to the world how efficiently violence can be worked whenÂ it is not hampered by any hypocrisy or weakness masquerading as humanitarianism.It is also showing how hideous, terrible and terrifying it looks in its nakedness.Can the Jews resist this organized and shameless persecution? Is there a way to preserve their self-respect, and not to feel helpless, neglected and forlorn? I submit there is. No person who has faith in a living God need feel helpless or forlorn. Jehovah of the Jews is a God more personal than the God of the Christians, the Mussalmans or the Hindus, though as a matter of fact, in essence, He is common to all and one without a second and beyond description. But as the Jews attribute personality to God and believe that He rules every action of theirs, they ought not to feel helpless.
If I were a Jew and were born in Germany and earned my livelihood there, IÂ would claim Germany as my home even as the tallest gentile German might, and challenge him to shoot me or cast me in the dungeon; I would refuse to be expelled or to submit to discriminating treatment. And for doing this IÂ should not wait for! the fellow Jews to join me in civil resistance, butÂ would have confidence that in the end the rest were bound to follow myÂ example…. …
And now a word to the Jews in Palestine. I have no doubt that they are goingÂ about it in the wrong way. The Palestine of the Biblical conception is not aÂ geographical tract. It is in their hearts. But if they must look to the Palestine of geography as their national home, it is wrong to enter it under the shadow of the British gun. A religious act cannot be performed with the aid of the bayonet or the bomb. They can settle in Palestine only by theÂ goodwill of the Arabs. They should seek to convert the Arab heart.
The same God rules the Arab heart who rules the Jewish heart… They willÂ find the world opinion in their favor in their religious aspiration. There areÂ hundreds of ways of reasoning with the Arabs, if they will only discard theÂ help of the British bayonet. As it is, they are co-sharers with theÂ British in despoiling a people who have done no wrong to them. I am notÂ defending the Arab excesses. I wish they had chosen the way of non-violenceÂ in resisting what they rightly regarded as an unwarrantable encroachmentÂ upon their country. But according to the accepted canons of right and wrong,Â nothing can be said against the Arab resistance in the face ofÂ overwhelming odds.
Let the Jews who claim to be the chosen race prove their title by choosingÂ the way of non-violence for vindicating their position on earth. EveryÂ country is their home, including Palestine, not by aggression but by lovingÂ service. A Jewish friend has sent me a book called The Jewish ContributionÂ to Civilization by Cecil Roth. It gives a record of what the Jews have doneÂ to enrich the world’s literature, art, music, drama, science, medicine,Â agriculture, etc. Given the will, the Jew can refuse to be treated as theÂ outcast of the West, to be despised or patronized. He can command the attention and respect of the world by being the chosen creation of God,Â instead of sinking to the brute who is forsaken by God. They can add toÂ their many contributions the surpassing contribution of non-violent action.